GETTING STARTED WITH ULTRASONIC SENSORS


ultra sonic sensor image

In this Arduino Tutorial we will learn how the HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor works and how to use it with the Arduino Board. In simple terms an ultrasonic sensor is used to sense distance from objects. The ultrasonic sensor has numerous applications and can be used in a lot of hobby projects like object avoidance robot, range finder and it is by far one of my favourite sensors It emits an ultrasound at 40 000 Hz which travels through the air and if there is an object or obstacle on its path It will bounce back to the module. Considering the travel time and the speed of the sound you can calculate the distance.

WORKING PRINCIPLE


This sensor works by sending a sound wave out and calculating the time it takes for the sound wave to get back to the ultrasonic sensor. By doing this, it can tell us how far away objects are relative to the ultrasonic sensor. The HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Module has 4 pins, Ground, VCC, Trig and Echo. The Ground and the VCC pins of the module needs to be connected to the Ground and the 5 volts pins on the Arduino Board respectively and the trig and echo pins to any Digital I/O pin on the Arduino Board. In order to generate the ultrasound, you need to set the Trig on a High State for 10 µs. That will

send out an 8-cycle sonic burst which will travel at the speed sound and it will be received in the Echo pin. The Echo pin will output the time in microseconds the sound wave travelled. For example, if the object is 10 cm away from the sensor, and the speed of the sound is 340 m/s or 0.034 cm/µs the sound wave will need to travel about 294 u seconds. But what you will get from the Echo pin will be double that number because the sound wave needs to travel forward and bounce backward. So in order to get the distance in cm we need to multiply the received travel time value from the echo pin by 0.034 and divide it by 2.

ultra sonic sensor

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:


SCHEMATICS


ultra sonic sensor schematics

CODE:


code for ultra sonic sensor